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Ecological Core Concepts -- Interspecific interactions -- Mutualism, symbiosis, and commensalism

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View Resource A close-up view of Aloe vryheidensis flowers with dark-colored nectar visible.

Floral nectar is offered by plants to animals as a reward for pollination. Nectar is usually clear and contains sugar and trace amounts of amino acids. Colored nectar also occurs, but is less common....

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658%282006%...
View Resource A female green orchid bee (Euglossa viridissima) gathers floral resins from a Clusia lanceolata plant to use in brood cell construction.

A female green orchid bee (Euglossa viridissima) gathers floral resins from a Clusia lanceolata plant to use in brood cell construction. A resin mass is visible on the hind leg. Almost 200 species of...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658%282006%...
View Resource A female silver studded blue butterfly (Plebejus argus) on a shrub in the Donana National Park of southern Spain.

A female silver studded blue butterfly (Plebejus argus) on a shrub in the Donana National Park of southern Spain. P. argus has a mutualistic association with ants of the genus Lasius and uses the...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/03-5344
View Resource A leaf shows damage caused by necrosis (cell death) and chlorosis (insufficient chlorophyll production) due to a pathogenic fungus.

A leaf shows damage caused by necrosis (cell death) and chlorosis (insufficient chlorophyll production) due to a pathogenic fungus. Such damage reduces the photosynthetic area available to the plant....

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/05-1170
View Resource A mycorrhizal fungus, Cortinarius favrei, grows among associated plant species in the Alaskan tundra.

Cortinarius favrei grows in the midst of dwarf birch (Betula sp.), Salix sp., Vaccinium sp., and Eriophorum sp. in the Alaskan tundra. The fruiting body (mushroom) of C. favrei is visible in the...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658%282006%...
View Resource A ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a key agent of seed dispersal in southern Madagascar.

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) serves as a key agent of seed dispersal in southern Madagascar, where the landscape is heavily fragmented by agriculture and remaining forest patches are protected...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1051-0761%282006%...
View Resource An ant (Crematogaster opuntiae) visits an extrafloral nectary of a fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni).

An ant (Crematogaster opuntiae) visits an extrafloral nectary of a fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni). In many mutualistic species interactions, a suite of species in one guild exchanges...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/05-0465
View Resource An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles).

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles). The Argentine ant is a widespread and ecologically damaging invasive species native...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658%282007%...
View Resource Ants (Crematogaster nigriceps) feeding on nectar produced by extrafloral nectaries on an acacia plant.

A photo of Crematogaster nigriceps, one of four ants that live on an Acacia species in the central highlands of Kenya. The ant feeds on the nectar produced by the nectaries associated with the...

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http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/02-0528
View Resource Comparisons of Mycorrhizal Properties from Two Host Tree Species

In this lab experiment, students learn about ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal properties associated with two host tree species to better under understand symbioses in general and gain experience using...

http://tiee.esa.org/vol/v9/experiments/turner/abstract.html
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