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A field planted with two kinds of cotton (Gossypium sp): Bt cotton and normal cotton, where the normal cotton acts as a refuge for insects.

Some rows of the field in the photograph contain cotton plants (Gossypium sp) that are genetically engineered to produce a toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt kills insects that feed on the cotton. Other rows contain cotton plants that are not genetically engineered, and they serve as refuges for the insects. Such refuges are important because they slow the rate at which insects evolve resistance to the genetically engineered cotton. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:6) in December of 2004.
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Primary or BEN resource type
Discipline Specific Core Concepts
Life science discipline (subject)
Keywords Bt, genetically engineered, genetic engineering, crop, agriculture, pesticide, insect, GE, GMO
Key taxa Bacillus thuringiensis, cotton, Gossypium
Intended End User Role
Educational Language
Pedagogical Use Description This photograph could be used to illustrate genetically engineered crops, Bt cotton, or the use of some crop types as a refuge for insects.
Primary Author Controlled Name
Primary Author Affiliation Department of Entomology, University of Arizona

Biology Program, Wilkes University
Primary Author email,
Rights Copyright 2004 by the Ecological Society of America.
Date Of Record Submission 2008-04-09

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